Endometriosis - is a condition in which cells similar to those in the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grow outside the uterus. Most often this is on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries.
Adenomyosis - is a medical condition characterized by the growth of cells that build up the inside of the uterus (endometrium) atypically located within the cells that put up the uterine wall (myometrium), as a result, thickening of the uterus occurs. As well as being misplaced in patients with this condition, endometrial tissue is completely functional. The tissue thickens, sheds and bleeds during every menstrual cycle.
Endometrioma - is the presence of endometrial tissue in and sometimes on the ovary. More broadly, endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue located outside the uterus. The presence of endometriosis can result in the formation of scar tissue, adhesions and an inflammatory reaction. It usually is a benign growth. This ovarian endometriosis forms dark, fluid-filled cysts. These can vary greatly in size and are known as endometriomas, also called "chocolate cysts". The fluid inside the cysts is thick, dark, old blood, giving it a chocolate-like appearance. It can also develop in the cul-de-sac (the space behind the uterus), the surface of the uterus, and between the vagina and rectum.
PCOS - Polycystic ovary syndrome is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer. It is referred to as polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) when there is ultrasonographic evidence of the presence of ovarian cysts.